Diet – what to eat

Eat Well Plate

michael pollan food rules lifehacker

what to eat Joanna Blythman

The Eatwell Plate



Action Plan
* Decide on 1-2 changes that you can make.
* Eating regular meals will stop you getting too hungry and being tempted by foods high in fat and/or sugar.
* Ensure you have a good fluid intake at least 6-8 cups/day.
* If you drink alcohol keep within safe limits.
* If you need to lose weight set a realistic target and aim to lose weight slowly.
* Increasing exercise will help you to lose weight as well as being good for your general well-being.
There are no good or bad foods just good or bad diets.

What to Eat
Meat small portions only. The size of your palm .Remove all visible fat.
Aim to eat 5 portions of fruit and vegetables each day remember to choose a wide variety.
Fish all kinds, but grill or steam, don’t fry. Shellfish may be eaten occasionally if liked.
Eggs not more than about 5 eggs in one week.
Cheese not more than about 50g (2oz) cheddar type cheese in one week. Cottage cheese may be eaten as desired.
Milk use skimmed milk, fresh or dried, if possible. Low fat yoghurt is suitable, but remember fruit varieties contain sugar, so are fattening.
* Margarine use polyunsaturated margarine instead of butter, but try not to use more than 150g (6oz) weekly.
* Oil use vegetable oil instead of solid fat for cooking, but try not to have fried foods very often.
* Vegetables, fruit eat plenty of these, but do not add any fat. If you want to eat chips of fried potatoes occasionally, cook them in vegetable oil.
* Bread and cereals wholemeal bread may be better than white. Eat it with a scrape of polyunsaturated margarine. Have skimmed milk on breakfast cereal, and use skimmed milk for custard or milk
* puddings.
Cut down fat in your diet, particularly saturated fat.
Eat less saturated fat (visible fat on meat, hard fats eg lard, butter) and use unsaturated fats (corn, olive, sunflower, rapeseed oils, oily fish) instead
Use lower fat alternatives like semi skimmed milk, low fat yoghurt.

Butter, lard, ordinary margarine, cream, ice-cream, pastry, cakes or biscuits made with saturated fat. Fat on meat, cream cheese, salad cream, mayonnaise, chocolate, toffees, fudge, butterscotch.
Food groups and what’s in a portion? How many portions should you eat in a day?
Bread, cereals, rice, pasta and potatoes
• 2 – 4 tbsp cereal
• 1 slice of bread
• Half small chapatti
• 2 – 3 crispbreads or crackers
• 2 – 3 tbsp rice, pasta, cous-cous, noodles, mash potato
• 2 new potatoes or half a jacket potato 2-3 at each meal

More than this will cause your blood glucose levels to rise above normal levels
Fruit and Vegetables
• a whole banana or apple
• a slice of melon
• 2 plums
• A handful of grapes
• A cereal bowl of salad
• 3 heaped tbsp of vegetables 1 fruit per meal maximum

As much vegetables and salad as you like

Meat, Fish and alternatives
• 2 – 3oz (60 – 85g) meat, poultry or vegetarian alternative
• 4 – 5oz (120 – 140g) fish or oily fish
• 2 eggs
• 1 sausage
• 1 rasher of bacon
• 2 tbsp nuts
• 3 tbsp beans, lentils or dahl 1 with light meal

1 with main meal
Milk and dairy foods
• 1/3 pint of milk
• Small pot of yoghurt
• 2 tbsp cottage cheese
• 1 ½ oz cheese (40- 45g, matchbox size) 1 per meal maximum
• 2 tsp spread or butter (1tsp per slice of bread)
• 2tsp oil (olive, sunflower, vegetable)
• 1 tblspn of coleslaw or salad cream or cream

High fat and sugary foods
• 1 mini chocolate bar or biscuit
• 2 tsp sugar, jam or honey
• 1 scoop ice cream
• 1 packet of crisps 1 per meal maximum

Maximum of 4 per week


Diet and health
Fruit and veg  5 a day can reduce stroke risk by  1/4
Meat Red and processed meat
increases risk of colorectal cancer up to 30%
recommended limit 300g week
Salt Increased levels increase risk of hypertension and cardiovascular events
Recommended target of 6 g per day
Magnesium A portion might be a medium-sized apple, a cup of raw salad greens, half a cup of cut-up vegetables, half a cup of cooked beans or peas, or three-quarters of a cup of 100% fruit or vegetable juice.
Alcohol cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, colorectum, and breast, and also leading to cirrhosis, which predisposes to liver cancer
Obesity increases the risk of cancer of the oesophagus, colorectum, pancreas, breast, endometrium, and kidney

source GP Update?


Daily nutritional requirements

Daily Carb Protein Fat Calculator



Diet regimes

Mediterranean Diet
high intake of vegetables, legumes, fruits, and cereals, a moderate to high intake of fish, a low intake of saturated fats, but a high intake of unsaturated fats, particularly olive oil, a low intake of dairy products and meat, and a modest
intake of alcohol, mostly as wine.

Indo-Mediterranean diet
green leafy vegetables, mustard or soybean oils, certain nuts and whole grains replace fish, rapeseed and olive oils, also reduces risk of cardiac death by up to half at least in Indian men

Paleo Diet

Dash Diet

Healthy BP Diet BPA


Healthy heart diet

More fibre
Less salt
Less sugar
Less fat in total and choose food high in polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat rather than saturated fat.

This can be done simply by :
Spreading butter or margarine thinly.
Use semi skimmed or skimmed milk.
Buy lean meat and trim off fat.
Avoid pies and pastries too often.
Eat more chicken and fish dishes fish fingers and fish cakes are suitable.
Use more beans, peas and lentils.
Fill up with more vegetables and fruit.
Have breakfast cereals, porridge, wholemeal bread and rolls more often.
Only fry food occasionally using a corn, soya, rapeseed or sunflower oil.
If you fancy chips use oven chips or use one of the above oils.
Keep intake of cheese to around 4oz per week.
Choose fruit for snacks and puddings instead of biscuits, cakes, pastry, chocolate, crisps or nuts.
Natural yoghurt can be used instead of cream for desserts and in cooking and makes a suitable salad dressing.
Foods containing cholesterol have only a small influence on blood cholesterol levels, therefore, foods such as eggs, liver and shellfish can be included in normal quantities once a week.

Cholesterol diet
Step 1 total fat <35% calories <10% saturated cholesterol <300mg
Step 2 total fat <25% calories <7% saturated cholesterol <300mg


(per 100g) Sugar Total Fat Satturates Salt
High >15g >20g >5g >1.5g
Medium 5-15g 3-20g 1.5-5g 0.3-1.5g
Low <5g <3g <1.5g <0.3g
(clinical craft cards BJPCN Sep 2009)

Low Sat Fat Diet
The best way to reduce the possibly harmful amount of fat and cholesterol in your blood is to limit the total amount of fat you eat and to change some of the saturated fat in your diet for unsaturated fat.

As a rough guide:
Saturated fat is usually of animal origin and solid at room temperature. Includes: butter, cream, milk fat, meat fat. Unsaturated or polyunsaturated fat is usually of vegetable origin, and liquid at room temperature. Includes: vegetable oils, polyunsaturated margarines.
Cholesterol occurs naturally in some foods and is made in your body. By limiting your fat intake you will also limit cholesterol.


Trans Fats

Trans Fats @ Mayo Clinic



Fat soluble vitamins ADEK

Vit A & Carotinaemia
Vitamin A in Under 5s BMJ Aug 2011 (NHS Networks Link)

Vit B

B12 deficiency

Vit C

Vit D

Vit E

Vit K

NHS Choices Supplements Review


Vitamin A



Vitamin B



B12 / folate deficiency


Vit B12 Deficiency BMJ Jun 2010

B12 is sometimes given orally at doses of 1-2 mglday if there is a dietary deficiency (unlicensed use), but, if not, should be administered by intramuscular injection (three times a week for the first 2 weeks, then once every 3 months hydroxycobalamin 1mg).
B12 levels are invariably high in patients receiving injections.

Low folate levels
poor diet eg in alcoholics
increased need eg in pregnancy, haemodialysis and haemolytic anaemias
malabsorption eg coeliac disease
latrogenesic eg in patients taking folate antagonists such as phenytoin or methotrexate.

Folic acid should not be given if there is concurrent vitamin B12 deficiency until the patient has had at least one injection of vitamin B12; otherwise, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord can be precipitated or worsened.

When treating folate deficiency, folic acid should be given at a dose of 5 mg per day for 4 months


Vitamin C

Vitamin C / Ascorbic acid umm.edu


Vitamin D




Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency Using appropriate available products June 2011 East & South East England Specialist Pharmacy Services via NELM

Vit D procts Nov 2011


Vitamin D washington.edu


Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency BMJ 2010;340:b5664

Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in adults and paediatrics: a guideline collation document for London and East & South-East England

Most experts say levels should be AT LEAST over 20 AIMING for over 30 ideally so treat if less than 20 aim for 30
Ideal and naturally occurring level in those with full sunlight exposure in equatorial environment) is about 50-70
Only repeat tests if concerns about adherence, if patient requests, or if no treatment for a long time, or failed treatment. Post treatment levels usually around 50.Do repeat and calcium level if concerns in pregnant women.
If associated with iron deficiency consider checking for coeliac disease ( TTG)

It is very hard to overdose on vitamin D unless you use very large doses for many months (caution in sarcoid)

Colecalciferol 20 000 two daily for 10 days then one weekly
ALL residents of nursing homes/housebound patients should be on one weekly Use ADCAL as well if established osteoporosis

CHILDREN with documented deficiency.
If under one year…
3000iu or equivalent per day for 8-12 weeks with calcium supplement( 50 mg/kg per day ) initially…this is equivalent to 20 000 per week ie one capsule. Many children can swallow them
Over one year
6000 units per day initially = two caps of colecalciferol weekly for 8 to 12 weeks
400iu ( as Dalivit OK up to age 10) daily
5 to 10 years 100 000 every three months or 20 000 per month Over 10 years 150 000 every three months or 20 000 per fortnight
Over 10 years give 20 000 two per month

Selected Food Sources of Vitamin D


IUs per serving*

Percent DV**

Cod liver oil, 1 tablespoon



Salmon (sockeye), cooked, 3 ounces



Mushrooms that have been exposed to ultraviolet light to increase vitamin D, 3 ounces (not yet commonly available)



Mackerel, cooked, 3 ounces



Tuna fish, canned in water, drained, 3 ounces



Milk, nonfat, reduced fat, and whole, vitamin D-fortified, 1 cup



Orange juice fortified with vitamin D, 1 cup (check product labels, as amount of added vitamin D varies)



Yogurt, fortified with 20% of the DV for vitamin D, 6 ounces (more heavily fortified yogurts provide more of the DV)



Margarine, fortified, 1 tablespoon



Sardines, canned in oil, drained, 2 sardines



Liver, beef, cooked, 3.5 ounces



Ready-to-eat cereal, fortified with 10% of the DV for vitamin D, 0.75-1 cup (more heavily fortified cereals might provide more of the DV)



Egg, 1 whole (vitamin D is found in yolk)



Cheese, Swiss, 1 ounce



*IUs = International Units.**DV = Daily Value. DVs were developed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of products within the context of a total diet. The DV for vitamin D is 400 IU for adults and children age 4 and older. Food labels, however, are not required to list vitamin D content unless a food has been fortified with this nutrient. Foods providing 20% or more of the DV are considered to be high sources of a nutrient.
Office of Dietary Supplements

National Institutes of Health

Is there a calcium and vitamin D preparation which is suitable for a vegetarian or vegan? NeLM Nov 11



Office of Dietary Supplements NIH





Iron rich foods



Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet ODS NIH


Calcium and vitamin D rich foods
Vit D Calcium
orange juice
dairy products, such as milk and cheese

iofbonehealth.org calcium rich foods






Magnesium Office of dietary supplements NIH

Magnesium Metabolism and its Disorders NCBI

Mg krispin.com

Magnesium Medscape

Magnesium Metabolism PUK





Zinc Office of dietary supplements NIH






Selenium office of dietary supplements NIH



Functional foods

Foods modified with supplements that claim to improve well-being or health
Fortified breakfast cereals
Plant sterols



Probiotics – live micro-organisms in yoghurts
Streptococcus thermophilus, Enterococcus species, Saccharomyces species, and various species of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria
May be beneficial in a range of gastrointestinal conditions.

Probiotics NIH

Probiotics can help symptoms of ulcerative colitis Evidence Based Medicine 2011;16:108-109



MUST nutrition scoring tool
Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool bapen.org.uk


Parenteral feeding




Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease

Cochrane Salt/Blood-Pressure Message Blasted in the Lancet


Potassium rich foods Serving Size Potassium (mg)
Apricots, dried 10 halves 407
Avocados, raw 1 ounce 180
Bananas, raw 1 cup 594
Beets, cooked 1 cup 519
Brussel sprouts, cooked 1 cup 504
Cantaloupe 1 cup 494
Dates, dry 5 dates 271
Figs, dry 2 figs 271
Kiwi fruit, raw 1 medium 252
Lima beans 1 cup 955
Melons, honeydew 1 cup 461
Milk, fat free or skim 1 cup 407
Nectarines 1 nectarine 288
Orange juice 1 cup 496
Oranges 1 orange 237
Pears (fresh) 1 pear 208
Peanuts dry roasted, unsalted 1 ounce 187
Potatoes, baked, 1 potato 1081
Prune juice 1 cup 707
Prunes, dried 1 cup 828
Raisins 1 cup 1089
Spinach, cooked 1 cup 839
Tomato products, canned sauce 1 cup 909
Winter squash 1 cup 896
Yogurt plain, skim milk 8 ounces 579


Potassium rich foods.com


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